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Drug test - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, or oral fluid/saliva.
Major applications of drug testing include detection of the presence of performance enhancingsteroids in sport, employers screening for drugs prohibited by law (such as cannabis, cocaine and heroin) and police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as BAC (blood alcohol content). BAC tests are typically administered via a breathalyzer while urinalysis is used for the vast majority of drug testing in sports and the workplace.
Detection periods. For ease of use, the detection times of metabolites have been incorporated into each parent drug. For example, heroin and cocaine can only be detected for a few hours after use, but their metabolites can be detected for several days in urine. The chart depicts the longer detection times of the metabolites. Oral fluid or saliva testing results for the most part mimic that of blood.
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- The following chart gives approximate detection periods for each substance by test type. The detection windows depend upon multiple factors: drug.
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The only exceptions are THC (tetrahyrocannabinol) and benzodiazepines. Oral fluid will likely detect THC from ingestion up to a maximum period of 6. This continues to cause difficulty in oral fluid detection of THC and benzodiazepines. Due to the very low levels of substances in the breath air, liquid chromatography. Using rapid oral fluid drug tests in the workplace is prohibited in only. It wasn't tested for in the past but is now detectable in modern tests. Approximate values for detection periods.
Chronic use (over one year): 4 to 6 weeksup to 9. Cannabis. Passive inhalation: up to 2. Infrequent users: 7- 1.
Days; Heavy users: 3. THC (found in marijuana) may only be detectable in saliva/oral fluid for 2 to 2.
Cocaine. 2 to 5 days (with exceptions for heavy users who can test positive up to 7. Urine drug testing is one of the most common testing methods used. The enzyme- multiplied immune test is the most frequently used urinalysis. Complaints have been made about the relatively high rates of false positives using this test.
The level of drug or its metabolites is not predictive of when the drug was taken or how much the patient used. Rather, it is simply a confirmatory report indicating the presence of the parent drug or its metabolites. Drugs which may be present in the urine specimen compete against their respective drug conjugate for binding sites on their specific antibody. During testing, a urine specimen migrates upward by capillary action.
A drug, if present in the urine specimen below its cut- off concentration, will not saturate the binding sites of its specific antibody. The antibody will then react with the drug- protein conjugate and a visible colored line will show up in the test line region of the specific drug strip . The urine sample goes through a specified 'chain of custody' to ensure that it is not tampered with or invalidated through lab or employee error. The patient or employee. The first step at the testing site is to split the urine into two aliquots.
One aliquot is first screened for drugs using an analyzer that performs immunoassay as the initial screen. If the urine screen is positive then another aliquot of the sample is used to confirm the findings by gas chromatography. If requested by the physician or employer, certain drugs are screened for individually; these are generally drugs part of a chemical class that are, for one of many reasons, considered more abuse- prone or of concern. For instance, oxycodone and diamorphine may be tested, both sedativeanalgesics. If such a test is not requested specifically, the more general test (in the preceding case, the test for opiates) will detect the drugs, but the employer or physician will not have the benefit of the identity of the drug.
Employment- related test results are relayed to a medical review office (MRO) where a medical physician reviews the results. If the result of the screen is negative, the MRO informs the employer that the employee has no detectable drug in the urine, typically within 2. No Mercy No Fear Download Free on this page. However, if the test result of the immunoassay and GC- MS are non- negative and show a concentration level of parent drug or metabolite above the established limit, the MRO contacts the employee to determine if there is any legitimate reason.
Although the accuracy of such tests varies with the manufacturer, some kits boast extremely high rates of accuracy, correlating closely with laboratory test results. A breath test measures the alcohol concentration in the body by a deep- lung breath. There are different instruments used for measuring the alcohol content of an individual though their breath. Breathalyzer is a widely known instrument which was developed in 1. For a breath- test to result accurately and truly an operator must take steps such as avoiding measuring .